Polyesters (Polyester) (PET or PES codes) are some of the polymers that contain esters. As a particular substance, it is commonly referred to as polyethylene terephthalate or polyethylene terephthalate. Polystyrene contains chemicals derived from natural reactions, such as those found in the shells of the Kayhan shells, as well as polymerization syntheses of bridges like polybutylate. Natural polyesters and some synthetic polyesters can be biodegradable, but this property does not contain more polyesters from synthesizing. Due to the polyester structure, they may be thermoplastic or thermosetting. There are also polyesters that can be soluble in hardening agents, but most of the polystyrene is thermoplastic.
Polyester is further used in synthetic fiber structure. Synthetic fibers derived from dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) or terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol (standard polyester fiber or commercial type of terylene trillene), or from 1 and 4 in methylole cyclohexane (vestan or Kodel) produced by the production of zirconium be.
The mass production of these fibers has begun since 1945, and today, with a global production of 21 million tons in 2002, it has the largest share of fiber production.
Characteristics: The density of 1.38 g / cm3, high tear strength, good elasticity, abrasion resistance, very good light stability, high resistance to mineral and organic acids (decompose in concentrated sulfuric acid)
The polyester fibers do not wrinkle and fade, they also do not mix, rinse well and dry quickly. Available scenarios: Filament yarns, cross-sectional fibers (mixed with wool, cotton, and carpet type). Fibers, fibers, spunbond fabrics and all types of haute cord fibers (in English) : Hollow fiber and double fiber
Get the full text of this article by clicking on the link below
and specialists and engineers and laborers have the Iranian industry.
The company has representatives from Europe, South Korea, India and China, in the field of machinery and raw materials, parts, materials, textile cooperative utilizes experts experienced in the textile and related industries
In this usage geotextile applies in one or more main roles according to the condition of the place, in the sub grade separating and stone materials and granules, in the filtration, water geotexti le, whether pass the under pressure flow causes by dynamic power or the instant flow of itself with filter and prevent the entrance of smooth soil into the foundation stone layer (Aggregate) and drain layer; in the role of making firm, it causes the finning of the sub grade smooth materials (especially CBR>3) and increases the CBR rate very well and will prevent of sinking the foundation stone materials and granule materials into the smooth and humid sub grade with distributing the area and local pressure.and improves the draining role in the road .
The main spoiling source in the road carpeting is injecting the unwanted water into the structure by the extant split on the carpeting. During making or refreshing the highway carpeting .road.airport band.parking places, cloth annexing between tack coat and new asphalt layer, make the effective humid dam and protect the under foundation in front of penetrating the surface water. [ n this usage, geotextile has two mechanisms for act improving of the coat . First, as the middle layer with pressure absorbing will prevent the diffusion of the reflective cracked of the old coat to the new coat and or will delay it , and second, as the anti humid layer will prevent the entrance of the surface 1 iquids and heaven descending through aphalt split into the under layer and making humid the sub grade and follow that prevent the sub grade weakness and interruption.
The usual way which is used for the cracked road restoration is AC coat, this act will cover the splits and after replacing the coat, any lateral or liner road movement causes the spread of last coat splits to the new coat and events the reflective splits.This movements causes laminating and lacerating and cutting across the reflective sp I its and makes a way for penetrating the surface waters to the foundation layer and sub grade. Under the new AC coat , geotextile can make traction solidity for repelling the received pressures of the last coat. move. Geotextile as the middle layer works in repelling the pressure which caused by the horizontal and vertical splits dipping geotcxtilc with asphalt and bitumen creates the impermeable layer than surface waters, because of affinity and relation the polymer fibers with oil materials, bitumen absorption and tack coat connection to the geotextile layer done very well .
Non woven geotextiles are using for liquid solution and gas assembling system, these products increase the efficiency of the system for burying the garbages and for the underground water cleaning project. Choosing the non woven geotextiles for environment cleaning and wastages controlling are the same as choosing underground drainage systems. High weight non woven layers are generally useful for this case.In the gas and oil transfer lines, for haltering floating force and preventing movement towards up, when fluid passing has lo task arrangements for increasing the vertical force which in the past has done with concrete counterweight. So in the case of not using the concrete counter weight, oil and construction materials over the tube are only confronting force with the tube up movement but in the case of using the soil continually system and geotextile can influence the total weight of sides soil and on the tube and canal septums on the tube cut surface and reach to the enough weight for confronting with :floating force.
The application mechanism of geotextile
distributing the proportional weight of soil on the tube surface can guarantee the traction power and geotextilc none breaking which makes enough resistant for overcoming on the floating force.
And over this water absorption property by geotextile causes absorption the permeable waters to the canals and with the waler passing ability and passing of its surface controls the water t 1 ow in the dipping splint place.
Geotextile effectively as padding waste control layer protection against pitting and other damage to conservation.
Zhyvmmbrn layer, coated and uncoated structures very tightly woven and layered system to strengthen Zhyvmmbrn layers of protection against the pressures applied voltage. No protective layer, cutting edge materials and waste underground causes damage Mmbrn and ultimately reduce the quality and efficiency of layers
RAILWAY FOUND A TT ON
Geotextile in this usage is reason for stabilizing the railway and according to the place conditions, performs one or more main roles: saving the railway bed geometry for effective act of rail is necessary. Geotextile in the separating role, takes place between rail foundation materials (Ballast) and under foundation (sub ballast). when the sub grade materials is pumping because of the train moving and its beating force into the foundation layer and under layer, can create the unsuperficial bed on this railway and causes speed decreasing or even getting out train of rail, a separating geotextile can repel this problem; geotextile in the stabilizing role in the new lines and or in the repaired lines, with spreading the imported pressure to the sub grade would increase its tolerance; gcotcxtilc helps to the haltering the foundation materials and under foundation in front of the laterad movements and of this way saves the pressure tolerance and fluency properties; also geotextile creates the mechanism for
lateral drainage (edges) and improves the drainage action.
RAILWAY STRENGTHENING AND CONSTANCY
With using non woven geotextile on the smooth and humid under layer will increase the life of the road and railway . This act creats with preventing the composed pebhle and stone , sand , grit entrance into the under layer. High weight non wovens are useful for stabilizing the railway Using the geotextile and railway underbed makes sure the railway embakment tolerates the foreseen road.
Geotextiles are replacing the usual soil filters for drainage approximate all of the structures, for example underground ‘Nater controlling system, road carpeting, building sub structures, dams and walls. Tn comparison with traditional soil fillers, geotextiles more than making a continually dtainage and useful, decrease the excavation an environmental effects and causes costs decreasing.
Light weight non woven geotextiles to the middle weight are useful for applying the drainage filter and permit under ground water passes of the drainage nucleases and also prevent of closing and stacking the drainage system, with contiguous soil. Non woven Semi heavy gcotcxtilcs when arc in close contact with one geonet or drainage stone can filter the soil and wastage and permit passing to water and chemical material.
WASTAGE PROTECTING CONTROLLilG
Wastage controlling and earth cleaning projects need geotextiles with instant physical properties and useful production quality in the environmental usages, geotextile must save the important and vital properties however exposes high chemical environment.
Applying the geotextile in liquids filtration and gas assembling systems and
protection the gcomcmbranc layer, arc wastage coating. Geotextiles are recommended for civic wastage and garbage burying place and harmful and dangerous wastage, weakest water filtration ponds and also protection sources and wastage controlling and other superficial protection systems.
Geotextile replace the granule filters and separated gravel under the rip rap or reinforced concrete blocks and in some cases uses for drainage canals, beaches security systems and jetty and soil dams Without geotextile filter, wave action and water movements, wearing out the sub grade soils under the gravel collection or reinforced layer, sub grade layer assimilation decrease the reinforced preference or rip rap co 11 ection and causes basic repairing Choosing geotextile for erosion constant controlling is the same as underground drainage. With all of these applications erosion controlling usually need the geotextiles with high solidity properties. Drainage canals, beaches, bridge and security systems of factors corrosion which cause of the water are some of the usage of the geotextile roles. With out presenting the filtering geotextile, water waves beats, wearing out the sub grade materials of the stone coat (Rip Rap) or reinforced concrete. Sub grade spoiling and erosion, neutralizes the benefits and action of the stone fence or reinforced and causes needing the basic repair and expensive replacing
Protector walls permit to their owners until increase the usage of their land, how ever building the gravity cement wall because of cost and heaviness is not workable. Geotextiles widely are using for making solidity to the embankments on the smooth soils, joint flood and protecting walls, geotextile of the budget case make workable, building the protective walls.
In fact the used geotextile for protective wall can be made with about less than half of the traditional protective wall cost. Woven gcotcxtilcs have more benefits than traditional method, like easy installation, easy making and having ability for using the excavation of the project place and also geotcxtilcs have the half cost of the geogrids and need less force for installation.